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The History Of The Earliest Use Of The word "Hack" In The Field Of Technology

 


The History Of The Earliest Use Of The word "Hack" In The Field Of Technology


The original English word "Hack" was found around 1200, and the Oxford Dictionary defines it as "cut with heavy blows in an irregular or random fashion."(๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰ You can read it in the book of The First Step towards Hacking ๐Ÿ‘ˆ๐Ÿ‘ˆ๐Ÿ‘ˆ) According to the nature described in the Oxford Dictionary, it is quite similar to the concept of hack that we know now, meaning (irregular). Hacking as we understand it today is actually just an unusual use. Let it be.  Let's continue.


What is Hacking What is Hacker and before the words hack were used in the technology field, there was an incident that had to be called Hack. The story began in 1878 with a telephone company. A company that employs teenage employees. It was an era when we had to use switchboards to connect with customers. After the group of teenage boys learned how these systems worked, they began to block the phones and make them reach others without reaching the person they wanted to call. Even then, the nature of the hack is unusual. Because of this incident, all the teenage boys were fired. Because they've done it over and over again. That was in 1878, two years after Alexander Graham Bell received the first US patent for the telephone.


In 1995, M.I.T started using the word hacking to refer to the process of skipping the fuse of machines. Someone had turned off the power to an electrical system without blowing a fuse. At a meeting in April 1995, the darn thing was discussed. To give the darn way, Mr. Eccles said, "Anyone working or hacking on the electrical system should turn the power off to avoid fuse blowing." The request was recorded in the meeting minutes. It was the first time I saw the word hacking.


But until then, hack, hacker, hacking, etc. were not fashionable in the technology field. The Jargon File, a dictionary for computer programmers released in 1975, defined the word hacker with 8 definitions. (๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰You can read it in The First Step towards Hacking Book.๐Ÿ‘ˆ๐Ÿ‘ˆ๐Ÿ‘ˆIn the jargon file, Malicious Hacker is used as cracker. They used to call it like that for a long time. cracker 

http://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/C/cracker.html 

The very first computer hackers appeared in the 1960s. (There were events before that, but I will leave it because it is more relevant to the topic that will be written later.) Main frame computers were used in the 1960s. (It's a lot different when it comes to portable computers like these days.) Main frame computers get pretty hot, so they're kept in temperature-controlled rooms and the area is enclosed by glass. It means that it is not given to everyone. So it's not easy for everyone to get hold of a computer, and even programmers are not good enough to get hold of a computer. The cost of mainframe computers is too high, so this may be a limitation.


That's why some really talented students at M.I.T. have created programming shortcuts called hacks. (Note: It's not the same as the Hack programming language used today. If you want to learn Hack Programming Language, you can get it at https://hacklang.org/.) The shortcuts they created made computing tasks easier and faster. Some shortcuts are even better than the original program. One of those hacks was a hack by two Bell Lab employees, Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, in 1969, which established the machine rules (need to run) in the field of computers. The hack was named UNIX and is still popular.


(Systems that work similar to UNIX system are called UNIX-like, and UNIX-like operating systems include popular operating systems such as Kali, Ubuntu, Debian Linux, Other Linux, Android, iOS, MacOS, etc.)


Since the 1970s, there have been more and more targets for hackers.


In 1971, a Vietnam vet named John Draper invented a way to make free phone calls. Later, this was called Phreaking.


In 1993, a movie called War Games was released, and it was the first movie to show the inner workings of hackers. Since then, more and more people have moved to the Hacking world. As more and more people moved to the online world, ARPNET became the internet. The internet has been around since then, and 1983, January 1, is designated as the official birthday of the internet.


I will conclude by telling a most interesting case of Milwaukee, a populous city in the United States.


  There was a hacker group in the city of Milwaukee called 414 that broke into the systems at Manhattan's Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Then the authorities closed it. It spread into 2 groups called LOD and MOD, and the competition between them grew. Their competition is called "The Great Hacker War".


At first, it was a single LOD team. The Legion of Doom (LOD) was founded by a man who called himself Lex Luthor. It was named after the name from the Saturday morning cartoon. LOD was able to show the best of the best, and even better appeal, until member Phiber Optik was kicked out of the group for feuding with Erik Bloodaxe.


Phiber Optik and his friends formed a group called Master of Deception (MOD) parallel to LOD. That's what "The Great Hacker War" has become.


From 1990-1992, their rivalry lasted for about 2 years. They cut phone lines, such as intercepting and monitoring phone calls; They hacked each other's computers and attacked each other, and in the midst of their competition, others also had to interfere. It got worse and worse, and the federal government had to intervene, and it was only when Phiber Optik and some of his associates were arrested that "The Great Hacker War" ended.


References:

http://plaza.url.edu/

https://www.newyorker.com/

https://en.wikipedia.org/ 

https://www.khitminnyo.com/ 

https://www.usg.edu/ 


It can also be interestingly studied in the documentary The Secret History of Hacking, a documentary film with an IMDB Rating of 7.6.

https://m.imdb.com/title/tt2335921/


The Secret History of Hacking is a 2001 documentary film that focuses on phreaking, computer hacking and social engineering occurring from the 1970s through to the 1990s. Wikipedia 




Thank You, all

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